1 Radio Frequency Identification Technology
Under normal circumstances, the RFID system consists of three parts
The tag is composed of a coupling element and a chip, each tag has an information code, and is attached to a target object to identify the target object; the antenna is a device for transmitting a radio frequency signal between the tag and the reader; the reader is read or The device that enters the target object information. Electronic tags are used to enter electronic data information with a specific format. The reader reads and recognizes the electronic data information recorded in the electronic tag without contacting the electronic tag, so that the object can be automatically recognized. In the identification system, the reader is connected with the computer, and the read tag information is directly transmitted to the recognition software in the computer for further processing.
Electronic tags have the advantages of longer service life, longer reading distance, data encryption, large storage capacity, and storage data that can be read and written. The RFID tags provide rich and direct information and are suitable for automated control and multi-target recognition and motion. Target recognition, etc., can achieve high work efficiency. Because this technology is difficult to be counterfeited and invaded, it has high utility value.
2 The composition of RFID logistics system
The logistics system is generally divided into four links: storage, inventory management, delivery, and transportation. However, RFID logistics systems use RFID tags as the basis for logistics systems. Therefore, the embedding of RFID tags in the production process is particularly critical. Embedded in the production process is a very crucial first step in the RFID logistics system. After the introduction of RFID tags, the other four links of the logistics system can be closely linked with RFID tags. In every aspect, the RFID system will play a powerful role in making the logistics of these items more efficient, accurate and safe.
2.1 RFID's involvement in the production of goods
The starting point of the traditional logistics system is in storage or outbound, but in the RFID logistics system, all commodities should have already begun to implement RFID tags during the production process. Because in general logistics, most of the RFID tags are used in the form of self-adhesive labels, it is only necessary to put an RFID tag on the package. RFID tag information entry is completed in four steps:
(1) Describe the corresponding commodity information, including the production department, completion, production processes and responsible persons, the use period, the use of the project department number, security level, etc., RFID tag comprehensive information input has become a strong support for process tracking.
(2) In the database, the relevant information of the product is entered into the corresponding RFID tag item.
(3) Editing the product and corresponding information to get the original information and database of the product. It should be noted that this is the first step in the logistics system and is the first link that RFID begins to intervene. It needs absolute guarantee. The information in the links and the accuracy of RFID.
(4) After completing the information entry, use the reader to confirm the information and check whether the corresponding information of the RFID tag is consistent with the product information. At the same time, perform data entry and display the completion time and handling person's time of entering the RFID tag information of each product. In order to ensure the uniqueness of RFID tags, the same product information can be sorted and coded to facilitate the inventory of the same items.
2.2 Realization of RFID in Commodity Entry
The warehousing requirements of commodities are very strict. Three elements of traditional logistics system warehousing are strictly controlled: handling personnel, articles, records, this process requires a lot of manpower, time, and requires multiple inspections to ensure three links. accuracy. In the RFID storage system, through the RFID information exchange system, these three links can be efficiently and accurately controlled.
In the RFID storage system, the RFID tag of the commodity is identified through a reader at the entrance of the warehouse, and the corresponding commodity information is found in the database and automatically entered into the RFID inventory management system. The system records the storage information and verifies it. If it is qualified, the inventory information is entered. If there is any error, an error message is displayed. In the RFID inventory information system, the RF terminal on the forklift can be directly guided, and the empty space can be selected and the best way can be found to arrive at the space. After the reader confirms that the product is in place, the inventory information is updated immediately. After the goods are put into storage, the inventory list can be printed by the RFID system printer, and the responsible person confirms.
2.3 Realization of RFID in commodity inventory management
After the goods are put into the warehouse, they need to use the RFID system to check and manage the inventory. This section involves the periodic inventory of the classified products through the reader to analyze the changes in the inventory of the goods. When the goods are displaced, the goods are automatically collected by the reader. Tag, and find the corresponding information in the database, and automatically transmit the information into the inventory management system, record the product name, quantity, location and other information, check whether there is an abnormal situation. With the help of RFID systems, the workload of personnel in traditional inventory management is greatly reduced, and commodity security and efficient inventory management are realized.
2.4 Implementation of RFID in Commodity Delivery
In the outbound system management of RFID, the management system automatically determines the optimal delivery path and determines the delivery area according to the order requirements of the goods. The RFID system reminds the staff to carry the goods through the on-board terminal. After scanning the goods and the RFID tag of the storage space, the RFID system confirms the delivery items and updates the inventory. When the item arrives at the exit passage, the reader will automatically read the RFID tag of the item and call the corresponding information in the database, and compare it with the order information. If it is correct, the reader can release the inventory, and the inventory of the goods will be reduced accordingly. In addition; if there is an exception, the warehouse management system prompts information to facilitate the staff to deal with.
3 Things to Be Noted in RFID in Logistics System
3.1 Technical parameters of RFID tags
Typical RFID operating frequencies are low frequency (LF 100-135 kHz), high frequency (HF 13.56 MHz), UHF (UHF 433 MHz and 800/900 MHz, where Europe: 865-868 MHz, United States: 902-928 MHz), and Microwave section (MF 2.45GHz and 5.8 GHz). China's RFID started late and the frequency is mainly in the UHF 800/900MHz band. This band includes public communications, stereo broadcast transmission and other industries. In order to ensure the security of RFID information, the use of frequency should be avoided as much as possible to coincide with the public frequency. Therefore, the frequency planning of RFID must consider the transmit power and the occupied bandwidth, and usually choose the UHF band transmit power of 2 to 4 (EIRP), and the effective omnidirectional transmit power (EIRP). Compared with an omnidirectional antenna, it can be used by a transmitter. Get in the most
Transmit power in the direction of large antenna gain. In terms of occupied bandwidth, the bandwidth of commonly used RFID systems is generally 200 to 250 kHz, and the bandwidth used by various countries is different.
3.2 The realization of RFID's logistics system
In the RFID logistics system, the realization of every job must rely on efficient computer systems. This includes hardware, software, and database support. In terms of hardware, it is necessary to implement computer tracking. Each link in the RFID logistics system requires an independent computer and guarantees the security of information in this computer. The construction of the software will be more complicated. The entire system needs to store and process the identification information of the RFID system. At the same time, it can check the information of the database and obtain the confirmation result. The amount of this background calculation will depend on the requirements of the entire RFID logistics system. At the same time, a powerful database function will better support each link and greatly increase the speed and accuracy of the work.