Every RFID system can be broken down by the frequency band in which it operates. Whether it is low, high or ultra-high frequency – there are many other categories of RFID systems as well. However, there are two major categories of RFID systems – active and passive, and we are explaining each of their types and frequencies below.
The frequency refers to the size of the radio that is used to communicate between each of the RFID system components. Hence the RFID systems are able to operate in low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) bands. The radio waves are able to behave differently in each of these frequencies – and there are pros and cons of each frequency band.
On the off chance that a RFID system works at a lower recurrence, it has a shorter perused range and slower information read rate, yet expanded abilities for perusing close or on metal or fluid surfaces. On the off chance that a system works at a higher recurrence, it for the most part has speedier information exchange rates and more read extents than lower recurrence systems, however more affectability to radio wave obstruction brought on by fluids and metals in the earth.
The LF band covers frequencies from 30 KHz to 300 KHz. Regularly LF RFID systems work at 125 KHz, in spite of the fact that there are some that work at 134 KHz. This recurrence band gives a short read scope of 10 cm, and has slower perused speed than the higher frequencies, yet is not exceptionally delicate to radio wave impedance.
LF RFID applications incorporate access control and domesticated animals following.
Gauges for LF creature following systems are characterized in ISO 14223, and ISO/IEC 18000-2. The LF range is not viewed as a really worldwide application on account of slight contrasts in recurrence and power levels all through the world.
The HF band ranges from 3 to 30 MHz. Most HF RFID systems work at 13.56 MHz with read ranges between 10 cm and 1 m. HF systems experience moderate affectability to impedance.
HF RFID is ordinarily utilized for ticketing, installment, and information exchange applications.
There are a few HF RFID principles set up, for example, the ISO 15693 standard for following things, and the ECMA-340 and ISO/IEC 18092 gauges for Near Field Communication (NFC), a shortrange innovation that is regularly utilized for information trade between devices. Other HF principles incorporate the ISO/IEC 14443 An and ISO/IEC 14443 benchmarks for MIFARE innovation, which utilized as a part of keen cards and closeness cards, and the JIS X 6319-4 for FeliCa, which is a savvy card system usually utilized as a part of electronic cash cards.
The UHF recurrence band covers the reach from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. Systems consenting to the UHF Gen2 standard for RFID utilize the 860 to 960 MHz band. While there is some fluctuation in recurrence from area to locale, UHF Gen2 RFID systems in many nations work somewhere around 900 and 915 MHz.
The read scope of detached UHF systems can be the length of 12 m, and UHF RFID has a speedier information exchange rate than LF or HF. UHF RFID is the most touchy to impedance, however numerous UHF item producers have discovered methods for planning labels, antennas, and readers to keep execution high even in troublesome situations. Inactive UHF labels are simpler and less expensive to make than LF and HF labels.
UHF RFID is utilized as a part of a wide assortment of applications, extending from retail stock administration, to pharmaceutical hostile to forging, to wireless device design. The heft of new RFID tasks are utilizing UHF contradicted to LF or HF, making UHF the quickest developing section of the RFID market.
The UHF recurrence band is managed by a solitary worldwide standard called the ECPglobal Gen2 (ISO 18000-6C) UHF standard.
Operating on the worldwide Gen2 standard
20x faster and with better range than HF
The price of labels was 5¢–15¢ in 2012
Ideally used for item tagging
HF and LF
Operates on multiple competing standards
Leverages a HF-based NFC made for secure payment
The price of labels, cards and inlays cost 50¢–$2
Used in many industries from immobilizing to ticketing and payment