Since 2004, an upsurge of wireless radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been launched worldwide. Commercial giants including Wal-Mart, Procter & Gamble, and Boeing have all actively promoted the use of RFID in manufacturing, logistics, retail, and transportation industries. . RFID technology and its application are in a period of rapid increase. It is recognized by the industry as one of the most promising technologies in this century. Its development and application promotion will be a technological revolution in the automatic identification industry. The application of RFID in the transportation logistics industry provides a new stage for communication technology and will become one of the potential profit growth points for the telecommunications industry in the future.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is abbreviated as "RFID".
Electronic tags are RFID tags and radio frequency identification. It is a non-contact automatic identification technology. It recognizes target objects and obtains relevant data through radio frequency signals. The recognition work requires no manual intervention. As a wireless version of bar code, RFID technology has waterproof, antimagnetic, and high-temperature resistance that the bar code does not have. Long life, large read distance, data on the label can be encrypted, storage data capacity is greater, storage information changes freely and so on.
RFID radio frequency identification is a non-contact automatic identification technology. It automatically identifies target objects and obtains relevant data through radio frequency signals. The identification work can work in various harsh environments without manual intervention. RFID technology can identify high-speed moving objects and can identify multiple labels at the same time. The operation is quick and easy.
Short-range RF products are not afraid of harsh environments such as oil stains and dust pollution. Barcodes can be used in such environments, for example, to track objects on the factory's assembly line. Long-range radio frequency products are mostly used for traffic, and the recognition distance can reach several tens of meters, such as automatic charging or identification of vehicle identities.
RFID solutions are RFID application solutions developed by RFID technology suppliers based on the characteristics of the industry. They can be tailored to the actual requirements of different companies.
RFID solutions can be classified according to industry, logistics, anti-theft anti-theft, identification, asset management, animal management, fast payment, etc.
RFID is one of the ten strategic technologies that companies may consider introducing in 2005. Middleware may be called the backbone of RFID operation because it can accelerate the development of key applications.
The potential of the RFID industry is endless, and its applications range from manufacturing, logistics, medical care, transportation, retail, and defense. The Gartner Group believes that RFID is one of the ten strategic technologies that companies can consider introducing in 2005. However, the key to its success is not only the price of tags, antenna design, band standardization, and device certification. It is necessary to have a key application (Killer Application) for rapid promotion. Middleware can be said to be the hub of RFID operation because it can accelerate the emergence of key applications.
Retailers promote RFID
Retail analysts at Sanford C. Bernstein estimate that by using RFID, Wal-Mart can save $8.35 billion a year, mostly because of labor costs that do not require manual viewing of incoming bar codes. Although some analysts believe that the $8 billion figure is overly optimistic, there is no doubt that RFID can help solve two of the biggest problems in the retail industry: commodity outages and losses (products lost due to theft and supply chain disruption) However, now that only one item is stolen, Wal-Mart’s loss for a year is almost $2 billion. If a legitimate company’s turnover can reach this figure, it can be ranked 694 in the list of the 1,000 largest companies in the United States. . Research institutions estimate that this RFID technology can help reduce theft and inventory levels by 25%.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is a non-contact automatic identification technology. Its basic principle is to use radio frequency signals and spatial coupling (inductance or electromagnetic coupling) or radar reflection transmission characteristics to realize the recognition of objects. Automatic Identification.
The RFID system contains at least two parts, an electronic tag and a reader.
The electronic tag is a data carrier of a radio frequency identification system, and the electronic tag is composed of a tag antenna and a dedicated chip for the tag. According to different electronic label power supply methods, electronic labels can be divided into active tags, passive tags, and semi-passive tags.
Active electronic tags contain batteries. Passive RF tags do not have a built-in battery. Semi-passive tags rely on batteries.
Electronic tags can be classified into low-frequency electronic tags, high-frequency electronic tags, ultra-high frequency electronic tags, and microwave electronic tags depending on the frequency. According to the different forms of packaging can be divided into credit card labels, linear labels, paper labels, glass tube labels, circular labels and special-purpose special-shaped labels.
An RFID reader (reader/writer) wirelessly communicates with an RFID tag via an antenna, and can read or write tag identification codes and memory data. A typical reader includes a high-frequency module (transmitter and receiver), a control unit, and a reader antenna.
System composition editing
The most basic RFID system consists of three parts:
Tag: It consists of a coupling element and a chip. Each tag has a unique electronic code and is attached to the object to identify the target object.
Reader: A device that reads (sometimes writes) tag information and can be designed to be handheld or stationary;
Antenna: Passes RF signals between tags and readers.
RFID inherited the concept of radar directly and developed a new AIDC technology—RFID technology. In 1948, Harry Stockman's "Communication of Reflective Power" laid the theoretical foundation for radio frequency identification (RFID).
RFID technology development history table. In the 20th century, the theory and application research of radio technology is one of the most important achievements in the development of science and technology. The development of RFID technology can be divided into 10 years:
1941-1950. The improvement and application of radar gave birth to RFID technology, which laid the theoretical foundation for RFID technology in 1948.
1951-1960. The exploration stage of early RFID technology is mainly in laboratory experiments.
1961-1970. The theory of RFID technology has been developed and some application attempts have begun.
1971-1980. RFID technology and product development are in a period of great development, and various RFID technology tests have been accelerated. Some of the earliest RFID applications have emerged.
1981-1990. RFID technology and products entered the commercial application stage, and applications of various scales began to appear.
1991 to 2000. The standardization of RFID technology has become increasingly important. RFID products have been widely adopted, and RFID products have gradually become a part of people's lives.
2001 - Today. The problem of standardization is becoming more and more important for people. RFID products are even more diverse, with active electronic tags,
Passive electronic tags and semi-passive electronic tags have all been developed. The cost of electronic tags has continued to decrease, and the scale of the application industry has expanded.
The theory of RFID technology has been enriched and improved. Single-chip electronic tags, multi-electronic tag reading, wireless readable and writable, remote identification of passive electronic tags, and RFID adapting to high-speed moving objects are becoming a reality. 
How it works
The basic model of the radio frequency identification system is shown in Figure 8.1.
Among them, electronic tags are also called radio frequency tags, transponders, and data carriers; readers are also called readout devices, scanners, communicators, and readers (depending on whether the electronic tag can wirelessly overwrite data). Between the electronic tag and the reader, a coupling element is used to achieve spatial (non-contact) coupling of the RF signal in the coupling channel, and energy transfer and data exchange are realized according to the timing relationship.
There are two types of coupling of RF signals that occur between the reader and the RFID tag.
(1) Inductive coupling. Transformer model, through the spatial high-frequency alternating magnetic field to achieve coupling, based on the law of electromagnetic induction, as shown:
(2) Electromagnetic backscatter coupling: The radar principle model, the electromagnetic wave emitted, hit the target and reflect, and carry back the target information, based on the spatial propagation law of the electromagnetic wave.
The inductive coupling method is generally suitable for low-frequency, high-frequency short-range radio frequency identification systems. Typical operating frequencies are: 125kHz, 225kHz, and 13.56MHz. The recognition distance is less than 1m and the typical action distance is 10-20cm.
The electromagnetic backscatter coupling method is generally suitable for long-range radio frequency identification systems for UHF and microwave work. Typical operating frequencies are: 433MHz, 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8GHz. Identification of the role of distance greater than 1m, the typical role of the distance 3 - l0m
Application area editing
1. Logistics: Tracking of goods in the logistics process, automatic collection of information, storage applications, port applications, postal services, express delivery;
2.Retail: real-time statistics of merchandise sales, replenishment, anti-theft;
3. Manufacturing: Real-time monitoring of production data, quality tracking, automated production;
4. Garment industry: automated production, warehouse management, brand management, single product management, channel management;
5. Medical: Medical Device Management, Patient Identification, Baby Theft Prevention;
6. Identification: Electronic passports, ID cards, student ID cards and other electronic documents;
7. Anti-counterfeiting: Anti-counterfeiting of valuables (smoke, alcohol, drugs), security of tickets, etc.;
8. Asset management: various types of assets (precious or large quantities of similarity or dangerous goods, etc.);
9. Transportation: High-speed non-stop, taxi management, bus hub management, railway locomotive identification, etc.;
10. Food: Freshness management of fruits, vegetables, fresh produce, food, etc.;
11. Animal identification: Training for animal identification, animal husbandry, pets, etc.
12. Libraries: Bookstores, libraries, publishers, etc.
13. Cars: manufacturing, security, location, car keys;
14. Aviation: manufacturing, passenger tickets, luggage tracking;
15. Military: Identification and tracking of ammunition, guns, supplies, personnel, trucks, etc.;
16. Electricity: Intelligent power inspection, smart meter reading and power asset management;