Application Of Radio Frequency Technology In Internet Of Things

- Sep 01, 2018-

 RFID technology

RFID is a type of contactless automatic identification technology. It automatically recognizes the target object and acquires relevant data through the RF signal, and the identification work can work in various harsh environments without manual intervention. RFID technology can recognize high-speed moving objects and recognize multiple labels at the same time, which is quick and easy to operate.

RFID is a simple wireless system. The simplest RFID system consists of an electronic tag, a reader and an antenna. After the electronic tag enters the magnetic field, it receives the RF signal from the reader, sends the product information stored in the chip by the energy obtained by the induced current, or actively transmits the frequency signal, and the reader reads the information and decodes it, and then sends it to the center. The information system performs data processing. RFID has the advantages of long non-contact working distance, suitable for harsh environments, and recognizable moving targets.

The working principle of RFID technology is: when the electronic tag enters the magnetic field, if it receives the special RF signal from the reader, it can send out the information stored in the chip (passive tag or passive tag) by the energy obtained by the induced current. ) Or actively send a signal of a certain frequency (active tag or active tag). After reading the information and decoding it, the reader sends it to the central information system for data processing.

The working frequency of the RFID chip mainly includes: low frequency 125 kHz, high frequency 13.56 MHz, very high frequency 860-960 MHz, microwave frequency band 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. Depending on the operating frequency, ISO/IEC 18000-X gives the technical standards for RFID in each frequency band.

RFID technology in the Internet of Things has mature applications in many fields. The Internet of Things-based diabetes treatment device has been proven to have the effect of controlling hyperglycemia and blood sugar levels; the ETC system using RFID technology can realize the function of charging without stopping; the smart watch can monitor the activity information of prisoners in real time and so on.

3. Application in the field of public security

1) RFID on traffic control

The ETC system, commonly known as the non-stop charging system, is an intelligent transportation electronic system that is based on modern communication technology, electronic technology, automatic control technology, computer and network technology, and realizes automatic charging of vehicles without stopping.

When the vehicle with the RFID tag approaches the ETC reader within a range of 0 to 10 meters, the ETC reader is controlled to issue a microwave inquiry signal, and the electronic tag installed at the fixed position of the inspected vehicle receives the inquiry from the reader. After the signal, the signal and the electronic tag's own data information (such as high-speed mileage) are reflected back to the reader. This technology will undoubtedly reduce the artificial charging phenomenon, while improving the speed of customs clearance and preventing traffic jams. This is obviously an Internet of Things.

The ETC system requires RFID to achieve remote identification of at least ten meters. Due to different technical requirements and actual conditions, the types of readers used are different. The standards of most countries such as Japan, the United States, and China are set in the 5.8 to 5.9 GHz band. The selection of the 5.8 GHz frequency band in China has the following advantages: First, China's communication system standard system is close to the European system, and the allocation of radio frequency resources is roughly the same. Secondly, the background noise in the 5.8 GHz band is small, and it is easier to solve the interference and anti-interference problems in this band than to solve 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz.

2), RFID in prison justice

The prison intelligent management system can identify labor education personnel and management personnel safely and reliably, and map the information of each person in the management system to each person in reality, and realize the informationization management of labor camps in a true sense. The application is to wear a wrist tag on the prisoner's seat, and install the reader and positioner at the main entrance of the prison. When the prisoner reaches the effective sensing area of the positioner, the positioner sends its position information to the wrist tag. The wrist tag transmits the received position signal and its own ID information to the reader, and the reader transmits the information to the computer system, and makes a unified analysis of whether the ID information and the address information of the wrist tag are normal, the wrist type Whether the active status of the tag is abnormal. If an abnormality is found, an alert is issued to notify the prison administrator.

Inductive electronic patrol automatically records the time, location and situation of patrol personnel during patrol inspections by using RFID technology. The new product of scientific and standardized management is an effective and scientific integrated management scheme for civil air defense and technical defense in public security management. The inductive electronic patrol and the label can be read by the radio waves of each other without contact, and the wear caused by the contact is avoided. This wristband can monitor the personal information and activity information of prisoners in real time. However, this wristband is removable, which seems to have little effect on preventing the escape of prisoners.

4. Application in the field of anti-counterfeiting

At present, the advantages of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, which has gradually emerged in the field of international anti-counterfeiting, have attracted widespread attention: non-contact, multi-object, mobile identification; enterprises are easy to implement anti-counterfeiting functions; anti-counterfeiting process requires almost no manual intervention; anti-counterfeiting process The label data is invisible, no mechanical wear and anti-fouling; supports bidirectional reading and writing of data; combined with information encryption technology, the label is not easy to forge; easy to use with other anti-counterfeiting technology for anti-counterfeiting.

The UHF (860 MHz.960 MHz) radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has a read/write distance of 10 m and passive passive RF tags are low cost, so it has received extensive attention in the field of supply chain management. It uses wireless radio frequency for contactless two-way communication to achieve identification purposes and exchange data. Radio frequency identification technology anti-counterfeiting, compared with other anti-counterfeiting technologies such as laser anti-counterfeiting, digital anti-counterfeiting, etc., the advantage is that each tag has a globally unique ID number - UID, UID is placed in the ROM when the chip is made Can not be modified, can not be counterfeited; no mechanical wear and anti-fouling; the reader has a physical interface that is not directly open to the end user, to ensure its own security; data security, in addition to the password protection of the label, the data part is available Some algorithms implement security management.

In the field of circulation, RFID technology makes reasonable product inventory control and intelligent logistics technology possible. Its application process in the logistics industry is: each product is shipped with an electronic tag, then a unique identification code is written through the reader, and the information of the item is entered into the database. After that, all the links such as box sales, export verification, arrival distribution, and retail shelves can be read and written repeatedly by the reader. The tag is the "identity card" of the item. With the help of electronic tags, real-time monitoring of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, transportation, warehousing, distribution, shelves, final sales, and even return processing can be realized.

RFID technology improves the automation of item sorting, reduces error rates, and makes the entire supply chain management transparent and efficient. In order to combat counterfeiting, the US manufacturer of anesthetic OxyContin announced that it will use radio frequency identification (RFID) technology on the bottle to realize electronic monitoring of the drug from production to the pharmaceutical factory. This is a crackdown on the growing phenomenon of drug fraud. Effective means. Drugs, food, dangerous goods, etc. are closely related to the daily life safety of individuals. They are special items supervised by the state. The process of production, transportation and sale must be strictly managed. Once the management is unfavorable, counterfeit and shoddy products will be scattered to the society. The safety of people’s lives and property poses a great threat. China's government and technical supervision system have also begun to use RFID technology to achieve anti-counterfeiting of special products such as medicines, foods, dangerous goods, etc., with the help of leading manufacturers in the field of radio frequency identification in China (such as Weishen Electronics, Dongfang Jiema, etc.). Tracking traceability.

At present, internationally, RFID tags can be embedded in standard passport covers or documents in terms of passport security and electronic wallet. The chip also provides security functions and supports hardware encryption, which conforms to the international standard of ISO14443. Domestically, there has been a considerable application in this field. The promotion and application of the second generation ID card is a typical representative in this respect. It is believed that this technology will soon be widely used in other important document issuance management. Illegal enterprises produce counterfeit and shoddy products, shoddy and profitable, and illegal criminal acts such as illegal documents have caused great harm to the society, seriously affecting the stability of social order and affecting the country's economic construction. The wide application of RFID anti-counterfeiting technology will not only bring direct economic benefits to enterprises, but also correctly and timely, dynamic and effective supervision of the production status of special goods production and operation units, crack down on and ban illegal production activities, and block the relevant national management departments. Manage loopholes, eliminate potential safety hazards, safeguard the lives and property of the country and the people, and provide strong technical support for the sustainable development of the national economy.

5. Application in smart parking lot

The intelligent parking lot provides an effective solution to the current confusion in parking lot management. The system solution applies Internet of Things RFID technology, computer LAN technology, voice prompt technology, short-range microwave communication technology, image digital processing technology and automatic control technology to realize automatic vehicle identification and information management, improve vehicle traffic efficiency and safety. And statistics of vehicle access data, to facilitate management personnel to schedule, reduce the labor intensity of managers, and effectively prevent charging loopholes.

(1) Electronic gate bar. Its function is to control whether to turn on or off according to the judgment result of the system.

(2) Vehicle detector. Usually buried in the vehicle passage, confirm the location of the vehicle. When the vehicle is still under the brakes, the brakes will not fall and the vehicle will be injured.

(3) Vehicle remote reading and writing equipment. The effective distance with the electronic tag reaches about 10 meters, and the vehicle needs to be decelerated before the vehicle approaches.

(4) The entrance and exit control host. It can be manually controlled by the manager when encountering an unconventional situation.

(5) Vehicle electronic label. It has the characteristics of waterproof, anti-magnetic, large amount of information storage, high density, and multi-purpose card.

(6) Management system. Real-time system management, card data management; with vehicle information statistical analysis function, display and print various statistical report data, provide a full range of services for management personnel query and management; improve management efficiency and reduce operating costs.

(7) Database system. For the smart parking system, each server is a real business host, the key to the parking lot, and the data is rapid.

When the vehicle enters or exits the forbidden antenna communication area, the antenna exchanges data with the electronic identification card by means of microwave communication, reads the relevant information of the vehicle from the electronic vehicle card, and reads the driver's information on the driver card. Automatically identify the electronic car card and the driver card, and determine whether the car card is valid and the legitimacy of the driver card, and check that the lane control computer displays the license plate number and the driver and other information information corresponding to the electronic car card and the driver card; The control computer automatically stores the relevant information of the time, the vehicle and the driver into the database, and the lane control computer performs the following judgment and processing based on the read data.

Compared with the traditional parking lot, the intelligent parking lot management system is based on the original charging medium, and the management medium is improved, and the RF card is selected as the management medium of the intelligent parking lot. Through the demand analysis, the functions of the intelligent parking lot management system are clarified, and the fixed users' non-stop access to the parking lot is realized, and the parking lot management level is improved.