To cope with the long-term care needs brought about by the aging population, governments of various countries have drawn up policies to use Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, 3G, GPS, and RFID to build a mobile medical network; Under the fermentation of the issues, the medical industry is also driven to integrate the Internet of Things into the next new phase of application.
The main application technologies of the Internet of Things technology in the smart medical field are mainly three aspects: material management visualization technology, medical information digital technology, and medical process digital technology.
Equipment Drug Monitoring Management
With the help of RFID technology, we have begun to apply the visualization technology for material management in medical institutions. We can realize the production, distribution, anti-counterfeit, and traceability of medical devices and drugs, avoid public medical safety issues, and realize drug tracking and equipment tracking, from scientific research and production. All-round real-time monitoring of the flow into the use process, effectively improving the quality of medical care and reducing management costs.
According to the World Health Organization, the proportion of counterfeit medicines in the world has exceeded 10%, and sales have exceeded 32 billion yuan. According to the data from the China Pharmaceutical Association, at least 200,000 people each year are dying from wrong drugs and improper use of drugs, and 11% to 26% of unqualified people use drugs. And about 10% of cases of medication errors. Therefore, RFID technology plays an important role in tracking and monitoring drugs and equipment, and rectifying and standardizing the medical products market.
Specifically, the application direction of the Internet of Things technology in the field of material management has the following aspects:
1, medical equipment and pharmaceutical anti-counterfeiting
The identification of the label attached to the product is unique, difficult to copy, and can play a role in inquiries and anti-counterfeiting. It will be a very important measure for counterfeit and inferior products. For example, the drug information is transmitted to a public database, and the patient or hospital can check the content of the tag and the records in the database to easily identify counterfeit drugs.
2, full-time real-time monitoring
Drugs from the scientific research, production, distribution and use of the entire process, RFID tags can be all-round monitoring. Especially when it is shipped from the factory, when the product is automatically packaged, the reader installed on the production line can automatically identify the information of each drug, transmit it to the database, and can record the intermediate information at any time during the distribution process to implement the entire line of monitoring.
3, medical spam management
Through the cooperation of different hospitals and transportation companies, RFID technology can be used to establish a traceable medical garbage tracking system to realize the full tracking of medical garbage delivery to processing plants and to avoid the illegal disposal of medical garbage.
The Internet of Things has broad application prospects in medical information management and so on. At present, the demand for medical information management in hospitals mainly focuses on the following aspects: identification, sample identification, and case identification. Among them, the identification mainly includes the identification of the patient and the identification of the doctor; the sample identification includes the identification of drugs, the identification of medical devices, the identification of laboratory products, etc.; the case identification includes the identification of the condition and the identification of physical signs. Specific applications are divided into the following areas:
1, patient information management
Patient's family history, past medical history, various examinations, treatment records, drug allergy and other electronic health records can help doctors formulate treatment plans; doctors and nurses can do real-time monitoring information on patient vital signs, treatment chemotherapy, etc. Prevent the use of wrong drugs, wrong needles and other phenomena, automatically remind nurses to conduct drug, inspections and other work.
2, medical emergency management
In the special circumstances of more wounded, unable to obtain family affiliation, critical illness, etc., with the reliable and efficient information storage and inspection methods of RFID technology, the patient's identity can be rapidly confirmed, and his name, age, blood type, emergency contact number, etc. can be determined. Detailed information on past medical history, family members, etc. Completed registration procedures for hospital admissions, and valuable time for emergency treatment patients.
In particular, 3G video equipment is installed in ambulances. When patients are on the way to the hospital, the emergency room can first understand the physiological condition of patients and fight for golden rescue opportunities. If you are remote, you can even use the remote medical imaging system for emergency rescue. .
3, drug storage
RFID technology is applied to the storage, use, and inspection of pharmaceuticals to simplify manual and paper record processing, prevent out-of-stock and facilitate drug recalls, avoid confusion between similar drug names, doses and dosage forms, and strengthen drug administration. Ensure timely and ready supply of medicines.
4, blood information management
Applying RFID technology to blood management can effectively avoid the disadvantages of small bar code capacity, can realize non-contact recognition, reduce blood pollution, achieve multi-target recognition, and improve data collection efficiency.
5, drug preparations prevent mistakes
By adding anti-mistake mechanism during drug taking and dispensing, it can be realized in prescription opening, dispensing, care delivery, patient drug use, drug efficacy tracking, drug inventory management, drug supplier purchase, shelf life, and preservation of environmental conditions. For information management of pharmaceutical preparations, confirm the types of preparations used by patients, record the flow of patients' use, and save the batch number, etc., to avoid the loss of medication and the safety of medication for patients.
6, medical equipment and drug traceability
Accurately record items and patient identities, including basic information on the use of the product, information on specific products involved in adverse events, areas where products with the same quality problems may occur, patients involved with the product in question, unused product locations, etc. Trace back to bad products and related patients, control all medical equipment and drugs that have not been put into use, and provide strong support for accident handling.
7, information sharing interconnection
Through the sharing and interconnection of medical information and records, a developed comprehensive medical network is integrated and formed. On the one hand, authorized doctors can check the patient's medical history, history, treatment measures and insurance details. Patients can also independently choose or change doctors and hospitals; on the other hand, they support township and community hospitals to seamlessly connect with the central hospital in terms of information, and can access expert advice, arrange referral, and receive training in real time.
8, newborn anti-theft system
The maternal and child identification management, infant theft prevention management, and channel authority of the obstetrics and gynecology department of women's and children's hospitals in large general hospitals are combined to prevent outsiders from entering and leaving the area. In particular, infants should be given an RFID wristband that can be uniquely identified after birth, and the baby's information and the mother's information are uniquely related. To determine whether the baby is wrong, just compare the baby's and baby's. RFID wristband information is fine, which avoids the occurrence of baby cuddles.
9, alarm system
Through real-time monitoring and tracking of hospital medical devices and patients, the patient was asked to send out emergency distress signals to prevent patients from leaving the area privately, prevent valuable devices from being damaged or stolen, and protect temperature-sensitive drugs and laboratory samples.
Telemedicine monitoring mainly uses the Internet of Things technology to build a patient-centric, long-distance consultation and continuous monitoring service system based on critically ill patients. Telemedicine monitoring technology was originally designed to reduce the number of patients entering hospitals and clinics.
According to the 2005 report of the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), about 50% of Americans suffer from at least one chronic disease, and their treatment costs account for more than 3/4 of the nation’s 2 trillion medical expenditures. In addition to the high cost of high-tech treatment and surgery, doctors routinely spend billions of dollars on routine inspections, laboratory tests, and other monitoring services.
With the advancement of telemedicine technology, sophisticated sensors have been able to achieve effective coherence within the body-area range of patients, and the focus of telemedicine monitoring has gradually shifted from improving lifestyles to providing life-saving information in a timely manner. Exchange medical plans.
In practical applications, relevant health information of residential residents can be transmitted to the rear through wireless and video, establish personal medical files, improve the quality of primary medical services, allow doctors to conduct virtual consultations, and provide primary hospitals with intellectual support from large hospital experts. The extension of quality medical resources to basic medical institutions; the establishment of a long-distance continuing education service system for clinical cases, etc., to enhance the quality of continuing education for medical staff in primary hospitals.
1. Application of RFID to help the elderly to live independently
Computer scientists from the University of Adelaide are leading a project to develop a new RFID sensor system that shows older people living on their own and providing safe care. Researchers use RFID and sensor technology to automatically identify and monitor people's activities. They can determine the individual's normal routine maintenance, and provide timely assistance when the danger comes. They have enormous potential value in the age of population aging.
The system's input costs are low, there are no privacy issues and intensive monitoring and monitoring, the monitored objects (the elderly) do not need to wear additional items.
2. Application of intelligent wheelchair
The task of the intelligent wheelchair is to safely and easily send the user to the destination and complete the intended task. In the course of exercise, the wheelchair not only needs to accept the user's instructions, but also needs to integrate the environmental information to start its own obstacle avoidance, navigation and other functional modules. Unlike the mobile robot, in the use process, the wheelchair and the user become a collaborative work system.
In the course of exercise, the wheelchair not only needs to accept the user's instructions, but also needs to combine the environmental information to start its own obstacle avoidance, navigation and other functional modules. Unlike the mobile robot, in the use process, the wheelchair and the user become a collaborative work system. This requires people to take this factor into consideration at the beginning of design. Therefore, safety, comfort, and ease of operation should be the most important factors in the design of intelligent wheelchairs. The difference in users' physical capabilities determines that the smart wheelchair needs to be designed to be A functionally diversified electronic system that can meet multiple levels of needs, while modularity best reflects the features of the system's versatility, each user can select the appropriate module integration based on their own type and degree of disability, and the designer can On the existing basis, by adding functional modules, it is very convenient to improve the function of the wheelchair.
The total function of the intelligent wheelchair can be divided into the following sub-functions: environment perception and navigation function, control function, driving function and human-computer interaction function. Through the functional analysis and module division of the intelligent wheelchair, combined with specific research content and expected control objectives, the system is mainly composed of a sensor module, a drive control module, and a human-machine interaction module.
The sensor module is mainly composed of internal state perception and external environment perception. The posture sensor of the wheelchair is determined by the posture sensor; the self-positioning information is obtained through the displacement speed and distance of the encoder; the vision, ultrasound, and proximity switches are mainly responsible for continuously obtaining the surroundings. Environmental and obstacle distance information.
Drive Control Module We adopt the rear-wheel drive method. Each rear wheel is equipped with a motor to realize the forward, backward and steering of the electric wheelchair under the operation of the controller. The human-computer interaction interface is input by the operating lever and the personal computer interface data in two ways to realize the basic human-computer interaction function.
3, mobile medical
By monitoring body temperature, heartbeat and other vital signs, a physical condition including information such as body weight, cholesterol content, fat content, and protein content of the individual is established for each client, human health status is analyzed in real time, and physiological pointer data is returned to the community. The nursing staff or related medical units can provide timely advice on dietary adjustments and medical care to clients, and can also provide hospitals and research institutes with scientific research materials.
4, RFID wristband application
In the near future, the mobile phone will become everyone's personal doctor.
Everyone estimates that there is a personal feeling, in the hospital line registration is very common, waiting and anxiety is the most common expression of people's face, this pain is sometimes more torture than pain. The hospital is overwhelmed by the fact that the patient is difficult to frustrated and faces thousands of outpatient clinics every day. But in the near future, these things will change.
Experts will live in the mobile phone, and the mobile phone will become everyone's personal physician, this is the Chinese Academy of Biomedical Engineering yesterday, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Yu Mengsun give people the prospect of health networking. Everyone is sick to find experts to see, but few experts, how can serve all the people? But in the future this will become a reality. The most important thing for an expert is experience, and these experiences are often based on the patient's illness, accumulated data pointers, if you can accumulate an expert experience of the database, when the parameters of the database is rich enough, as long as the patient put their own sick parameter pointer input in, the database will automatically to the patient,
And this database is ultimately a robotics expert. These jerky databases may not be understood by many people, but for example, if an expert is looking at cancer, then a specialist's database model can be established by collecting enough of the expert's treatment regimen to combine the pathological indicators of the patient, For example, when a 10,000-person database pointer is collected, the database has 10,000 solutions for leukemia treatment, that is, an ordinary leukemia person, as long as the various test parameters into the database, the database will automatically according to the previous expert experience to produce treatment plan, And this treatment is the expert's daily treatment experience. Such a database will eventually become software built into the phone, once sick, the phone's software will be automatically treated, and if the situation is not judged, experts will personally conduct the treatment of patients through the Internet. Every citizen's mobile phone will be a machine doctor.
5, GPS positioning of the application of heart disease people Everyone has to build their own health database.
A heart patient, if a digital health file is established, if the heart rate is abnormal or even high-risk, the data will be immediately back to our system, GPS positioning, we can help patients call 120 immediately, contact the nearest hospital for help. This is a simple thing networking application, but after every citizen's home will have a physical examination equipment, the public just put the palm on this equipment, then the equipment will collect blood pressure, heartbeat, pulse, body temperature and other factors, and the future even some simple tests can be completed on the equipment, These data collection will be automatically transferred to the hospital's data center, once the situation occurs, the doctor will be prompted to further examination, or to take treatment measures nearby. If necessary, people's physical examination may be carried out every day.
6, a doctor as long as a card, a wrist strap
Every time we go to the subway people feel very relaxed, and the card is all resolved.
In the health of the Internet, the doctor is like taking the subway, as long as a card is all resolved. In the medical process, patients with ID card as the only legal identity in a specific automatic card machine (reader) on the scan, and deposited a certain amount of petty cash, a few seconds Automatic card machine will generate an RFID card (can also be used by the special health Care Card), complete the registration. Patients with cards can be directly to any department to see a doctor, the system automatically transmits this patient information to the corresponding department doctor's workstation, in the diagnosis and treatment process, the doctor issued the examination, the medicine, the Cure information all will transmit to the corresponding department, the patient only then carries on the RFID card in the related department to scan on the reader to carry on the examination, takes the medicine , treatment, no longer need to pricing, pay and commute.
At the end of the visit, the card can be used to print invoices and charges. In addition, with the RFID treatment card is the use of RFID wrist strap, including the patient's name, sex, age, occupation, registration time, visiting time, diagnostic time, check time, fees and other information. The acquisition of patient identity information without manual input, and the data can be encrypted, to ensure that the patient's unique source of identity information, to avoid the manual input of possible errors, while the encryption maintenance of data security.
In addition, the wrist strap also has the positioning function, the person who wears the wrist belt can no longer sneak out of the hospital. When an RFID wristband is forcibly removed or the patient is outside the hospital's prescribed range, the system will be alerted, wearing an RFID wrist strap with monitoring vital signs (respiration, heartbeat, blood pressure, pulse) and setting a critical value, which can monitor the change of vital signs 24 hours, and the system will automatically notify the alarm when the critical value is reached. So that the medical staff to intervene at the first time.
In the course of medical treatment, patients are examined, film, surgery, medication, etc., can be used to confirm the patient's information through the RFID wrist, and record the starting time of each work, to ensure that all levels of medical and inspection personnel to carry out the doctor's advice in place, without errors, so that the whole process of clinical quality control. Patients can use RFID wrist strap in the designated reader at any time to check the occurrence of medical expenses, and can print their own cost results, as well as health care policies, rules and regulations, nursing guidance, medical programs, drug information and so on, so as to improve patients access to medical information and satisfaction degree.
At present, there are still several technical problems to be solved in the medical care application of IoT:
1, dynamic networking and large-scale network node mobility management When the guardianship system expands to the community, the city and even the whole country, its network scale is huge, and the monitoring node and the base station all have certain mobility.
Therefore, it is necessary to design a suitable network topology management structure and node mobility management method.
2, data integrity and data compression Nodes sometimes require up to 24 hours of monitoring human parameters, the data collected is large, and storage capacity is small, often using compression algorithm to reduce data storage and transmission, however, the traditional data compression algorithm is not suitable for sensor nodes.
In addition, the compression algorithm can not damage the original data, otherwise it will cause misdiagnosis.
3. Data security Wireless sensor network nodes are composed of self-organizing network, vulnerable to attack, in addition, the patient's information needs to be kept secret. The computing power of sensor nodes is very limited, and traditional security and encryption techniques are not applicable.
Therefore, it is necessary to design an additive algorithm suitable for sensor nodes.
Intelligent Medical Care provides a wide range of services, including long-term treatment, prevention and early detection of chronic diseases, through the Internet of things, the development of which will ultimately be the establishment of a link between the hospital's internal and external institutions, and even with patients linked to the system. In the near future, the medical industry will be integrated into more artificial intelligence, sensor technology and other High-tech, so that medical services to the real sense of intelligence, to promote the prosperity of medical service development. Under the background of China's new medical reform, intelligent medicine is entering the life of ordinary people.