To cope with the long-term care needs brought about by the aging of the demographic structure, governments of various countries have drawn up policies to use Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, 3G, GPS, and RFID to build a mobile medical network, and to provide remote medical care. Under the fermentation of the issues, the medical industry is also driven to integrate the Internet of Things into the next new phase of application.
The main application technologies of the Internet of Things technology in the smart medical field are mainly three aspects: material management visualization technology, medical information digitization technology, and medical process digitization technology.
I. Surveillance and Management of Medical Devices and Drugs
With the help of RFID technology, we have begun to apply the visualization technology for material management in medical institutions to realize the production, distribution, anti-counterfeit, and traceability of medical devices and medicines, avoid public medical safety issues, and realize drug tracking and equipment tracking from scientific research and production. All-round real-time monitoring of the flow into the use process, effectively improving the quality of medical care and reducing management costs.
According to the World Health Organization, the proportion of counterfeit medicines in the world has exceeded 10%, and sales have exceeded 32 billion yuan. According to the data from the China Pharmaceutical Association, at least 200,000 people each year are dying from wrong drugs and improper use of drugs, and 11% to 26% of unqualified people use drugs.
And about 10% of cases of medication errors. Therefore, RFID technology plays an important role in tracking and monitoring drugs and equipment, and rectifying and standardizing the medical products market.
Specifically, the application direction of the Internet of Things technology in the field of material management has the following aspects:
1, medical equipment and pharmaceutical anti-counterfeiting
The identification of the label attached to the product is unique, difficult to copy, and can play a role in inquiries and anti-counterfeiting. It will be a very important measure for counterfeit and inferior products. For example, the drug information is transmitted to a public database, and the patient or hospital can check the content of the tag and the records in the database to easily identify counterfeit drugs.
2, full-time real-time monitoring
Drugs from the scientific research, production, distribution and use of the entire process, RFID tags can be all-round monitoring. Especially when it is shipped from the factory, when the product is automatically packaged, the reader installed on the production line can automatically identify the information of each drug, transmit it to the database, and can record the intermediate information at any time in the process of circulation to implement the entire line of monitoring.
3, medical spam management
Through the cooperation of different hospitals and transportation companies, RFID technology can be used to establish a traceable medical garbage tracking system to realize the full tracking of medical garbage delivery to processing plants and to avoid the illegal disposal of medical garbage.
Second, digital hospital
The Internet of Things has broad application prospects in medical information management and so on. At present, the demand for medical information management in hospitals mainly focuses on the following aspects: identification, sample identification, and case identification.
Among them, the identification mainly includes the identification of the patient and the identification of the doctor; the sample identification includes the identification of drugs, the identification of medical devices, the identification of laboratory products, etc.; the case identification includes the identification of the condition and the identification of physical signs. Specific applications are divided into the following areas:
1, patient information management
Patient's family history, past medical history, various examinations, treatment records, drug allergy and other electronic health records can help doctors formulate treatment plans; doctors and nurses can do real-time monitoring information on patient vital signs, treatment chemotherapy, etc. Prevent the use of wrong drugs, wrong needles and other phenomena, automatically remind nurses to conduct drug, inspections and other work.
2, medical emergency management
In the special circumstances of more wounded, unable to obtain family affiliation, and critically ill patients, with the help of reliable and efficient information storage and inspection methods of RFID technology, the patient's identity can be rapidly confirmed, and his name, age, blood type, emergency contact number, etc. can be determined. Detailed information on past medical history, family members, etc. Completed registration procedures for hospital admissions, and valuable time for emergency treatment patients.
In particular, 3G video equipment is installed in ambulances. When patients are on the way to the hospital, the emergency room can first understand the physiological condition of the patients and fight for golden rescue opportunities. If they are located remotely, they can even take a remote medical imaging system for emergency rescue. .
3, drug storage
RFID technology is applied to the storage, use, and inspection of pharmaceuticals to simplify manual and paper record processing, prevent out-of-stock and facilitate drug recalls, avoid confusion between similar drug names, doses and dosage forms, and strengthen drug management. Ensure timely and ready supply of medicines.
4, blood information management
Applying RFID technology to blood management can effectively avoid the disadvantages of small bar code capacity, can realize non-contact recognition, reduce blood pollution, achieve multi-target recognition, and improve data collection efficiency.
5, drug preparations prevent mistakes
By adding anti-mistake mechanism during drug taking and dispensing, it can be realized in prescription opening, dispensing, care delivery, patient drug use, drug efficacy tracking, drug inventory management, drug supplier purchase, shelf life, and preservation of environmental conditions. For information management of pharmaceutical preparations, confirm the types of preparations used by patients, record the flow of patients' use, and save the batch number, etc., to avoid the loss of medication, and the safety of medication for patients.
6, medical equipment and drug traceability
Accurately record items and patient identities, including basic information on the use of the product, information on specific products involved in adverse events, areas where products with the same quality problems may occur, patients involved with the product in question, unused product locations, etc. Trace back to bad products and related patients, control all medical equipment and drugs that have not been put into use, and provide strong support for accident handling.
7, information sharing interconnection
Through the sharing and interconnection of medical information and records, a developed comprehensive medical network is integrated and formed. On the one hand, authorized doctors can check the patient's medical history, history, treatment measures and insurance details. Patients can also independently choose or change doctors and hospitals; on the other hand, they support township and community hospitals to seamlessly connect with the central hospital in terms of information, and can access expert advice, arrange referral, and receive training in real time.
8, newborn anti-theft system
The maternal and child identification management, infant theft prevention management, and channel authority of the obstetrics and gynecology department of a large general hospital can be combined to prevent outsiders from entering and exiting freely. In particular, after the baby is born, it is necessary to wear a “RFID wristband” that can identify the unique identity of the baby, and make the baby’s information uniquely correspond to the mother’s information. To determine whether it is the wrong baby, just compare the mother. Baby's "RFID wristband" information is fine, which avoids the occurrence of baby cuddles.
9, alarm system
Through real-time monitoring and tracking of hospital medical devices and patients, the patient was asked to send out emergency distress signals to prevent patients from leaving the area privately, to prevent valuable devices from being damaged or stolen, and to protect temperature-sensitive drugs and laboratory samples.
Third, remote medical monitoring
Telemedicine monitoring mainly uses the Internet of Things technology to build a patient-centric, long-distance consultation and continuous monitoring service system based on critically ill patients. Telemedicine monitoring technology was originally designed to reduce the number of patients entering hospitals and clinics.
According to the 2005 report of the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), approximately 50% of Americans suffer from at least one chronic disease, and their treatment costs account for more than 3/4 of the nation’s 2 trillion medical expenditures. In addition to the high cost of high-tech treatment and surgery, doctors routinely spend billions of dollars on routine inspections, laboratory tests, and other monitoring services.
With the advancement of telemedicine technology, sophisticated sensors have been able to achieve effective coherence within the body-area range of patients, and the focus of telemedicine monitoring has gradually shifted from improving lifestyles to providing life-saving information in a timely manner. Exchange medical plans.
1. Application of RFID to help the elderly to live independently
Computer scientists from the University of Adelaide are leading a project to develop a new RFID sensor system to show that older people remain independent and safe. Researchers use RFID and sensor technology to automatically identify and monitor people's activities; they can determine the normal routine maintenance of individuals, and provide timely assistance when dangers arise, and have enormous potential value in the age of population aging.
The system's input costs are low, there are no privacy issues and intensive monitoring and monitoring, the monitored objects (the elderly) do not need to wear additional items.
2. Application of intelligent wheelchair
The task of the intelligent wheelchair is to safely and easily send the user to the destination and complete the intended task. In the course of exercise, the wheelchair not only needs to accept the user's instructions, but also needs to combine the environmental information to start its own obstacle avoidance, navigation and other functional modules. Unlike the mobile robot, in the use process, the wheelchair and the user become a collaborative work system.
In the course of exercise, the wheelchair not only needs to accept the user's instructions, but also needs to combine the environmental information to start its own obstacle avoidance, navigation and other functional modules. Unlike the mobile robot, in the use process, the wheelchair and the user become a collaborative work system. This requires people to take this factor into consideration at the beginning of design. Therefore, safety, comfort, and ease of operation should be the most important factors in the design of intelligent wheelchairs. The difference in users' physical capabilities determines that the smart wheelchair needs to be designed to be A functionally diversified electronic system that can meet multiple levels of needs, while modularity best reflects the features of the system's versatility, each user can select the appropriate module integration based on their own type and degree of disability, and the designer can On the existing basis, by adding functional modules, it is very convenient to improve the function of the wheelchair.
The total function of the intelligent wheelchair can be divided into the following sub-functions: environment perception and navigation function, control function, driving function and human-computer interaction function. Through the functional analysis and module division of the intelligent wheelchair, combined with specific research content and expected control objectives, the system is mainly composed of a sensor module, a drive control module, and a human-machine interaction module. Among them, the sensor module mainly consists of internal state perception and external environment perception. Through the posture sensor, the posture information of the wheelchair itself is determined; and the self-positioning information is obtained through the encoder's displacement speed and distance.
Vision, ultrasound, and proximity switches are primarily responsible for continuously obtaining distance information about the surrounding environment and obstacles. Drive Control Module We adopt the rear-wheel drive method. Each rear wheel is equipped with a motor to realize the forward, backward and steering of the electric wheelchair under the control of the controller. The human-computer interaction interface is input by the operating lever and the personal computer interface data in two ways to realize the basic human-computer interaction function.
The intelligent wheelchair has two independent drive wheels, each equipped with a motor encoder. The odometry-type relative positioning sensor is constituted by the real-time detection data of two motor encoders. At the same time, an inclination sensor and a gyroscope are installed to measure the posture state of the wheelchair during traveling. Ultrasonic sensors and proximity switches are used to sense ambient information. In order to obtain a wider range of obstacle information, the system is equipped with 8 infrared sensors and 8 ultrasonic sensors. In addition, a CCD camera is installed to determine depth information in the forward travel.
Ability to balance the body with just two wheels. This salient feature requires that it has a special structure. The basic design idea is to keep the two wheels driven by independent DC motors, and to keep the center of gravity of the car body above the axle on one axis, using the inclination angle of the detection body. The sensor acquires the attitude information of the car body in real time. The processor of the robot processes the sensor signal, calculates the control quantity to control the rotation speed and steering of the motor according to a certain control algorithm, drives the robot forward or backward, and completes the balance of the vehicle body.
The intelligent wheelchair uses a combination of an inclination sensor and a gyroscope to form an attitude sensor to detect the running posture of the body platform. The inclination sensor is used to measure the angle of the wheelchair from the vertical direction, and the gyroscope is used to measure the angular velocity.
3, mobile medical
By monitoring body temperature, heartbeat and other vital signs, a physical condition including information such as body weight, cholesterol content, fat content, and protein content of the individual is established for each client, human health status is analyzed in real time, and physiological pointer data is returned to the community. The nursing staff or related medical units can provide timely advice on dietary adjustments and medical care to clients, and can also provide hospitals and research institutes with scientific research materials.
4, RFID wristband application
In the near future, the mobile phone will become everyone's personal doctor.
It is estimated that all of us have personally felt that it is very common to queue up at hospitals. Waiting and anxiety are the most common expressions on people's faces. This bitterness sometimes afflicts people more than ailments. Because the patient is not able to agonize over a doctor's visit and face thousands of out-patients every day, the hospital is deeply overwhelmed. But in the near future, these will change. Experts will “stay in” mobile phones, and mobile phones will become personal doctors for everyone. This is the outlook for the healthy Internet of things that Yu Mengjun, vice president of the Chinese Society of Biomedical Engineering, and academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering hopes to see.
Every human being wants to find experts, but there are few experts, how can we serve all people? But in the future this will become a reality. The most important thing for experts is experience, and these experiences are often accumulated based on the data pointers obtained from the patient's illness. If a database of expert experience can be accumulated, when the parameters of the database are rich enough, as long as the patient himself is sick With the input of the parameter pointers, the database will automatically see the patient, and the database is ultimately a “robot expert”.
These jerky databases may not be understandable to many people, but for example, if an expert specializes in cancer, then as long as enough specialists are given treatment plans, these treatment plans are combined with the patient's pathological indicators and an expert is established. The database model, for example, when database pointers for 10,000 leukemia people were collected, then there are 10,000 solutions for leukemia treatment in this database. That is to say, a common leukemia person, as long as the various laboratory parameters are input into this In the database, the database will automatically generate a treatment plan based on previous expert experience, and this treatment plan is the expert's daily treatment experience.
Such a database will eventually become software built into the cell phone. Once it is sick, the software in the cell phone will be automatically treated. If there is any situation that cannot be judged, the expert will personally go through the Internet to treat the patient. Every citizen’s mobile phone will be a “machine private doctor”.
5, GPS application of heart disease people
Everyone must establish their own health database. If a heart patient has a digital health record, once the heart rate is abnormal or even high-risk, the data will be immediately transmitted back to our system. Through GPS positioning, we can help the patient to dial 120 immediately and contact the nearest hospital for assistance.
This is a simple Internet of Things application, but every citizen’s home will have a physical examination device. As long as the public put their hands on this device, then the device will collect blood pressure, heart rate, pulse, body temperature and other factors. In the future, even simple tests can be completed on the equipment. After these data are collected, they will be automatically transmitted to the hospital's data center. Once the situation arises, the doctor will prompt further inspections or take immediate treatment measures. If necessary, people's medical examinations may be performed daily.
6, as long as the doctor "a card, a wristband"
Every time people enter the subway, they feel very relaxed, and everything is solved by swiping the card.
In the health internet of things, seeing a doctor is just like taking a subway. As long as one card is completely resolved.
In the medical process, the patient uses the ID card as the only legal proof of identity to scan on a specific automated card reader (reader), and deposits a certain amount of backup money. The automatic card machine will be generated within a few seconds. An "RFID visit card" (you can also use a dedicated medical insurance card) to complete the registration. The patient holds the card directly to any department for treatment. The system automatically transmits the patient information to the workstation of the corresponding department doctor. During the diagnosis and treatment process, the doctor checks, medication, and treatment information are transmitted to the corresponding department. With the "RFID card" scanned on the readers of related departments, you can check, take medicines, and treat medicines. It is no longer necessary to go back and forth for the price of the products and the fees. After the end of the visit, you can hold the card to the toll office to print the invoice and expense list.
In addition, the “RFID RFID wristband” that corresponds to the “RFID visit card” includes information such as the patient's name, gender, age, occupation, registration time, consultation time, diagnosis time, examination time, and expense status. The acquisition of patient identity information does not require manual input, and the data can be encrypted, ensuring the only source of patient identity information, avoiding manual input of possible errors, and encrypting and maintaining data security. In addition, wristbands have positioning capabilities, and people wearing wristbands can no longer sneak out of the hospital.
When someone forcibly dismantles the "RFID wristband" or the patient exceeds the range specified by the hospital, the system will make an alarm; wearing an "RFID wrist" with a monitoring vital sign (breath, heartbeat, blood pressure, pulse) and setting "critical value" "With" can monitor the vital signs changes 24 hours, when the "critical" is reached, the system will automatically alarm immediately, so that the medical staff to intervene in the first time. In the medical process, information such as tests, radiography, surgery, and drug delivery performed on patients can be confirmed by the “RFID wristband” and the starting time of each job can be recorded to ensure that The doctors and inspectors performed the doctor's advice in place, and no errors occurred, thus implementing full quality control of the entire diagnosis and treatment process.
Patients can check the status of medical expenses at any time on the designated reader/writer through the “RFID wristband”, and can print their own cost results, as well as medical insurance policies, rules and regulations, nursing guidance, medical plans, and drug information, and improve The ease and satisfaction of patients' access to medical information.
Fourth, the Internet of Things technology applications in medical care problems
At present, there are still several technical problems that need to be solved in medical care applications for the Internet of Things:
1. Dynamic mobility and node mobility management in large-scale networks
When the monitoring system is expanded to a community, a city, or even a nation, its network is huge, and both the monitoring node and the base station have certain mobility. Therefore, a proper network topology management structure and node mobility management method must be designed.
2, data integrity and data compression
Nodes sometimes require up to 24 hours to monitor human parameters. The amount of data collected is large, and the storage capacity is small. Compression algorithms are often used to reduce the storage and transmission of data. However, the traditional data compression algorithm is not suitable for high cost sensors. node. In addition, the compression algorithm can not damage the original data, otherwise it will cause misdiagnosis.
3, data security
Wireless sensor network nodes adopt self-organizing methods to form networks and are vulnerable to attacks. In addition, patient information needs to be kept confidential. The computational power of sensor nodes is quite limited, and traditional security and encryption technologies are not applicable. Therefore, an additive algorithm for sensor nodes must be designed.
In short, Smart Medical provides a wide range of services, including long-term treatment, prevention and early detection of chronic diseases. Through the Internet of Things technology, its development will ultimately be to establish a link between the hospital and the outside of the hospital, even with patients. Linked system.