RFID is radio frequency identification, commonly known as electronic tags. It is a non-contact automatic identification technology. It automatically recognizes the target object and acquires relevant data through the RF signal. The identification work can work in various harsh environments without manual intervention. RFID technology can recognize high-speed moving objects and recognize multiple labels at the same time, which is quick and easy to operate.
The history of RF technology dates back to the 1930s, and the physical principles of RFID technology are the same as those of the 19th century invention of radio broadcasting. In the 1930s, the US Army and Navy faced the problem of identifying targets on the ground, at sea, and in the air. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) developed the identification friend-or-foe (IFF) in 1937, which identifies both friendly and enemy aircraft. This technology became the basis of the world's air traffic control system in the late 1950s. However, due to high cost and large equipment, it is generally only used in military or laboratory and large commercial enterprises. After the emergence of smaller and lower cost technologies, such as integrated circuits, programmable memory chips, microprocessors and modern software applications and programming language technologies, radio frequency identification has gradually become the mainstream of commercial applications.
By the end of the 20th century, many RFID applications began to expand globally, including access control systems, flight baggage identification, car theft, and electronic payment.
In the 21st century, RFID has the advantages of remote and one-to-many reading, thin and light, signal penetration and stain resistance, reusability, high storage capacity, etc. The application area of management is getting more and more attention.
For logistics and retailers, they look forward to using this technology to enhance the automated management process of goods and improve the overall efficiency of the supply chain operation. Wal-Mart, the global leader in department store retail, requires its top 100 suppliers to adopt RFID systems, making this small chip instantly a hot star. According to Wal-Mart's full use of RFID tags, it will save $8.4 billion annually, cut 5% of company inventory and reduce the personnel costs of 7% of managed warehouses.
Compared with other automatic identification technologies, the main features of RFID include the following four aspects.
(1) Read and write functions of data. As long as the RFID Reader can be used, the message can be read directly into the database, and multiple tags can be processed at one time, and the status of the process can be written into the tag for reading and judgment of the next stage of data processing.
(2) Miniaturized and diverse shapes. RFID is not limited in size and shape on reading, and does not need to match the fixed size and print quality of the paper for reading accuracy. In addition, RFID tags can be developed in small and diverse forms for use in different products.
(3) Environmental resistance. Paper can't be seen as soon as it gets dirty, but RFID has a strong stain resistance to substances such as water, oil and medicine. RFID can also read data in dark or dirty environments.
(4) Reusable. Since the RFID data is electronic data, it can be overwritten repeatedly, so the tag can be recycled and reused. For example, passive RFID can be used without a battery and there is no need for maintenance.